An A-Z of terms, terminology and ideas in English language teaching, including how to ask concept questions, how to write a lesson plan and the different features of connected speech.

Back channelling

Back channelling is the feedback which a listener gives to a speaker to show that (s)he is following, or understands what the speaker is saying.

Tense versus Aspect in TEFL

What's the difference between a tense and an aspect in English, and what are the different tenses and aspects?

Genre in TEFL

In English language teaching, a genre is a text type (spoken or written) which has a distinctive form and content and which is socio-culturally recognisable.

Top Down vs Bottom Up Processing

The way in which we process (and therefore understand) written and spoken texts is often described as either top-down or bottom-up. So what do we mean by this?

Anaphoric, Cataphoric and Exophoric Referencing

A look at anaphoric, cataphoric and exophoric referencing in English language teaching.

9 Ways to Check Understanding in TEFL

When should we check that our learners understand, and how should we check their understanding?

Teaching techniques: Concept questions

Concept questions (also referred to as concept checking questions or CCQs) are questions designed to check learners’ understanding of a language item. So how do we make them?

5 Features of Connected Speech

A look at assimilation, elision, delayed plosion, catenation and intrusion in connected speech.

List of Irregular Verbs

A list of some of the more common irregular verbs in English.

Phonemic Chart for TEFL

This phonemic chart contains all of the 44 sounds, or phonemes, found in spoken English, with the symbols taken from the International Phonetic Alphabet.

How to Plan a TEFL Lesson

What is a lesson plan, do we need one, and what should it include?

Teaching techniques: 6 Steps to Effective Drilling

Drilling is a way of standardising pronunciation of a language item and developing fluidity. When and how should we drill language in a TEFL lesson?