List of Irregular Verbs

grammar

What is an irregular verb?

An irregular verb is one which does not follow the normal pattern of “base form + ed” in the past tense form and past participle form.

Regular verbs do follow this pattern, for example:

Base form Past tense form Past participle form
work worked worked
play played played

Irregular verbs are formed differently, for example:

Base form Past tense form Past participle form
begin began begun
bring brought brought

List of irregular verbs

Here’s a list of some of the more common irregular verbs.

The past tense form (so-called because of its use with this tense) is also referred to as verb 2. This is because it also has other functions, such as in unreal conditionals and to talk about wishes in the present. Referring to it as the “past tense form” can therefore cause confusion, and in the table below we refer to it as verb 2.

The past participle form also has different functions, for example:

– forming the perfect aspect: I have already eaten / He had arrived
– forming the passive voice: 1000 widgets are produced in the factory every day
– modifying nouns: You can spend the enclosed money on whatever you like

For this reason, the past participle form is also referred to as verb 3, and that’s what we use in the table below.

Base form Verb 2 Verb 3
awake awoke awoken
be was/were been
bear bore born
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bet bet bet
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast broadcast
build built built
burn burnt/burned burnt/burned
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
dive dived/dove dived
do did done
draw drew drawn
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
flee fled fled
fly flew flown
forbid forbade forbidden
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
freeze froze frozen
get got got
give gave given
go went gone/been
grow grew grown
hang hung/hanged hung/hanged
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
kneel knelt/kneeled knelt/kneeled
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
lean leant/leaned leant/leaned
leap leapt/leaped leapt/leaped
learn learnt/learned learnt/learned
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
light lit lit
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
pay paid paid
put put put
quit quit quit
read read read
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
shake shook shaken
shine shone shone
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
shrink shrank shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
smell smelt/smelled smelt/smelled
speak spoke spoken
spend spent spent
spit spat/spit spat/spit
spread spread spread
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stank stunk
strike struck struck/stricken
swear swore sworn
sweep swept/sweeped swept/sweeped
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
understand understood understood
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
win won won
write wrote written

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