Affirmative: have / has + verb 3 (past participle)
Negative: haven’t / hasn’t + verb 3 (past participle)
- Present perfect is used to show that a finished action/event has a connection with the present or has a result in the present.
- I can’t go out because I’ve lost my keys.
- She’s had an accident and she’s in the hospital now.
- I’ve had lunch so I’m not hungry.
- Present perfect is used to give news or talk about recent events.
- She’s had a baby girl.
- There’s been a big fire at the factory.
- The value of the dollar has risen in recent weeks.
- Just is used to express a very recent action.
- She’s just had a baby.
- I’ve just had lunch.
- Present perfect is used to talk about a period of time not finished at the time of speaking.
- I‘ve had three cups of coffee today. (today is not finished)
- I had three cups of coffee yesterday. (yesterday is finished)
- Have you seen the news this week? (this week is not finished)
- Did you see the news yesterday? (yesterday is finished)
- I’ve been on holiday twice this year. (this year is not finished)
- I went on holiday twice last year. (last year is finished)
- Present perfect is used with for or since to talk about how long a present situation has lasted.
- I’ve lived in Spain for 10 years. (for + period of time)
- She hasn’t spoken to him since April last year. (since + specific date/time)
- Present perfect is used to talk about experiences, or about an indefinite time in the past. We may not know when the action happened or it may not be important.
- Have you ever eaten frogs’ legs? (at any time in your life until now)
- I’ve never had a computer. (at any time in my life until now)
- She has read all the Harry Potter books. (at some time in the past – it’s not important when)
- I’ve seen Shrek. (at some time in the past – it’s not important when)
- We often talk about repeated actions/events from the past until now.
- We’ve visited China many times.
- I’ve been to France twice.
- The phone has rung five times since lunchtime.
- Already is used to say something happened sooner than expected.
- I’ve already seen Mission Impossible.
- Yet is used to say that we expect something to happen.
- I haven’t seen Mission Impossible yet.
- Have you spoken to Dave yet?
- Been and gone
- They’ve gone to Greece for a holiday. (they are in Greece now)
- They’ve been to Greece. (they went to Greece and they’ve come back)
See the phonemic chart for IPA symbols used below.
- Been is usuallly reduced to its weak form.
- I’ve been to New York: /bɪn/