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Regular verbs: verb + d or ed
Irregular verbs: see list of irregular verbs
Past simple is used to talk about finished actions and time.
- I went there last year.
- You lived in Paris when you were younger, didn’t you?
- He worked there in 1980.
- She saw him yesterday.
- We didn’t see Jack and Liz at the party last night.
- What did they talk about at the meeting in Zurich?
See the phonemic chart for IPA symbols used below.
With regular verbs, the pronunciation of the d or ed ending depends on the last phoneme of the verb.
- If the last phoneme of the verb is /d/ or /t/, we add a syllable, pronouncing the ending /ɪd/
- land (one syllable) – landed (two syllables): /lændɪd/
- start (one syllable) – started (two syllables): /stɑːtɪd/
- If the last phoneme of the verb is a vowel, a diphthong, /b/, /dʒ/, /g/, /v/, /ð/, /z/, /ʒ/, /m/, /n/or /ŋ/, we don’t add a syllable and the ending is pronounced/d/
- snooze (one syllable) – snoozed (one syllable): /snuːzd/
- line (one syllable) – lined (one syllable): /laɪnd/
- If the last phoneme of the verb is /p/, /tʃ/, /k/, /f/, /θ/, /s/ or /ʃ/, we don’t add a syllable and the ending is pronounced /t/
- hope (one syllable) – hoped (one syllable): /həʊpt/
- pick (one syllable) – picked (one syllable): /pɪkt/
Related grammar points