"Well-timed silence hath more eloquence than speech."
-Martin Fraquhar Tupper
As a teacher trainer one of my ongoing issues in pre-service courses is with teacher talking time – how much is coming out of the teacher’s mouth, the proportion of time the teacher is talking vs. the students, and how to get this ratio as high as possible in the students’ favour.
Whether this is actually something worth striving for is a whole different debate. Let’s just take it as a given that less teacher talk is a good thing, and get on with the list:
1.Don’t Echo. Here is a common classroom script:
T: So, what are your ideas, where shall we go?
T: Bolivia, yes, great, we can go to Bolivia. Where else?
S2: The Marshall Islands.
T: Ooh, the Marshall Islands, yes, we’ll put the Marshall Islands on the list, ok…
Even though the lesson is to some extent interactive, the students have no reason to listen to one another – the teacher is repeating everything that needs to be heard.
"But they might not hear each other!" Tell them to speak up. Or better yet, if a student can’t hear, she can ask the other student to speak up.
"But how do I work in open class, if I am not supposed to speak?" With the above scenario, the teacher needs to say exactly four words: T writes on WB "Places to Go". T holds WB pen, ready to transcribe. Waits. If nothing is forthcoming, T asks "Where should we go?"… and waits for answers.
2.Wait. It takes time for learners to hear and process what you have said, and adding more teacher talk doesn’t help. Shutting up and waiting does. Here’s the wrong way, interrupting your Ss’ thought processes before they get the chance to respond:
"So where should we go? (1 second pause) Let’s make a list, we’ll write down our ideas here, what do you say guys? (1 second pause) How about Tierra del Fuego, is that a good place, should I write that? Yeah, OK…"
The only way for student voices to enter the classroom is by the teacher allowing the space. After you ask a question, wait. Wait a long time, if need be.
3. Don’t answer right away. Chances are one of the students knows the answer, if the teacher shuts up. Compare:
S1: Why is that?
T: Ah, yes, you see here we have the auxiliary, so blah blah blah…
S1: Why is that?
T: Mmmm. (pauses, looks around the room, waits…)
S2: I think because, is question…
T: (pointedly shuts up, open body language, waiting…)
S3: Yes, "Do" because it is question, same like in yesterday lesson…
Here not only do we have students speaking and the teacher shutting up, but as an added bonus the students are doing the thinking, and are showing evidence of their learning! Big Win!
4. Groupwork is better, always. Because when the students are working together in groups it is impossible for you to speak. Well, not impossible – resist the urge to interrupt the groupwork for "just a second" to "just explain this one more thing"…
5. Ask open-ended questions. They require more from the students, and therefore require less talk from you. Compare:
T: Is it a boy, or a girl?
T: Yes, a girl. And what do you think, is she happy?
T: Ooh, yes, she is. Maybe she got a good mark on her test, do you think so?
T: Look. What’s this? (shut up. wait)
S1: A girl.
T: (continuing to shut up)
S2: She is schoolgirl.
S3: She is going to school, she has book bag.
S4: No, she is going home, she is happy. (laughter)
6. Make use of your written materials. If the instructions are already there in the coursebook, why are you spending valuable class time blathering on about how to do a gap fill?
I agree with this, why do teachers have to repeat and re-read material which is already in the textbook, also children need to be able to think for themselves and it’s good for them to ask questions, as it increases their knowledge.