will + verb
am/is/are + going to + verb
will not/won’t + verb
am/is/are not + going to + verb
- To give or ask for information about the future.
- Her parents will be here in about an hour.
- All her friends will come to her wedding.
- For plans or decisions made at the time of speaking.
- “We need some paper for the photocopier.” “Okay, I’ll go and get some.”
- “What would you like to eat?” “I’ll have a pizza please.”
- To make predictions about the future.
- I think it will rain tomorrow.
- Al Pacino will win the award for Best Actor.
- Do you think Brazil will win the World Cup?
- To make predictions about the present.
- Don’t phone her now, she’ll be busy.
- To offer to do something.
- I’ll take you to the airport tomorrow.
- That suitcase looks heavy, I’ll carry it for you.
- To agree to do something.
- Okay, I’ll come with you.
- To promise to do something.
- I promise I won’t tell anyone you broke the window.
- To make requests (or give orders).
- Will you open the door for me please?
- Will you marry me?
- Will you shut up please?
- To refuse to do something or talk about refusals.
- No, I won’t cook your dinner, you can cook it yourself.
- I’ve asked him but he won’t do it.
Using “going to”
- For plans or decisions made before speaking.
- Is John coming home soon? – Yes, I’m going to meet him at the airport tomorrow.
- I’m going to watch TV in a minute, because my favourite programme is on.
- To make predictions about the future based on present evidence.
- Look at the sky. It’s going to rain soon.
- Germany have just scored. England are going to lose again.
See the phonemic chart for IPA symbols used below.
- In connected speech, will is usually contracted to ‘ll, pronounced /əl/ or /ʊ/ or even /ɔː/
- I’ll /aɪjəl/ – this in turn is sometimes reduced to /ɑːl/
- You’ll /juːəl/ – this is sometimes reduced to /jɔːl/
- He’ll /hiːəl/
- We’ll /wiːəl/
- They’ll /ðəɪəl/ – this is sometimes reduced to /ðel/
- In connected speech, going to is reduced to its weak form, with several possibilities. “I’m going to leave” can be:
- /gəʊɪŋtə/ – the vowel sound in “to” is reduced to a schwa
- /gəʊɪntə/ – the vowel sound in “to” is reduced to a schwa and the last consonant sound of “going” is elided, so/ŋ/ becomes /n/
- /gʌnə/ – this is the often quoted “gonna”